Archive for the killers Category

Another 5-Star review for International Best Selling author Joe Bruno’s “The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley: Did the Political and Financial Power of the Kennedy/Skakel Families Trump the Truth?

Posted in crime, criminal, criminals, famous murders, famous trials, killers, murder, Murder in Greenwich Connecticut, police, Uncategorized, unsolved murders with tags , , , , , , on August 28, 2016 by Joe Bruno's Blogs

5.0 out of 5 stars

As Jack Webb would say on Dragnet: “Just the facts.”

August 27, 2016

By Tyler “Duke” Hess

This review is from: The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley: Did the Political and Financial Power of the Kennedy/Skakel Families Trump the Truth? (Kindle Edition)

I read RFK’s book on the subject and got the same feeling as when my mother used to try to explain why I was innocent when I wasn’t. On reading Bruno’s book I felt, with my lifelong experience with crime, that it was more realistic; no BS or wild speculation; no excuses. Of course, it was the same high standard of writing as all Joe Bruno’s books that draws you into the world at hand. Great job!

https://www.amazon.com/Mysterious-Murder-Martha-Moxley-Political-ebook/dp/B01GONEAUW/ref=pd_sim_351_6?ie=UTF8&psc=1&refRID=R9JJT49X6SNQPCV73DJF#nav-subnav

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Joe Bruno Fights Back!

Posted in crime, criminal, criminals, Drug dealers, famous murders, famous trials, killers, murder, Murder in Greenwich Connecticut, Uncategorized, unsolved murders with tags , , , , , , , , , on August 23, 2016 by Joe Bruno's Blogs

Below is my response to someone called “Amazon Customer” (they never use their real name when they perform hatchet jobs), after he (or she) posted a 1-star review for my new book, “The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley: Did the Political and Financial Power of the Kennedy/Skakel Families Trump the Truth?”

Anyone who knows me personally knows I don’t take bullshit from anyone, even a Kennedy, or a Kennedy “groupie” like the person below appears to be.

*****

The review:

1.0 out of 5 stars
Opinionated rehash of old material
By Amazon Customer
on August 23, 2016
Format: Kindle Edition

This was written by a biased author from his computer terminal. He formulated the Dominic Dunne POV and carefully curated the facts (gossip) surrounding the case. Why not. It worked for Dunne and his boy buddy Mark the disgraced cop Furhman. Too bad, I admired a previous book by Bruno, not knowing much about the case. I happen to be familiar enough with the Moxley case to know Joe created a fiction that he may actually believe.

*****

My reply on Amazon to his (or her) review.

Joe Bruno Sr.

Why do you believe to believe RFK Jr, and not me, Mark Fuhrman, Dominick Dunne and Len Levitt, all of whom have come to the same conclusion; that Michael Skakel is guilty of the murder of Martha Moxley? We have no horses in this race. RFK Jr. is trying to protect a blood cousin.

You call what we have written “fiction,” and RFk Jr.’s book “Framed” you have rated 5 stars and said, “This book proves it beyond a shadow of a doubt. Fact is indeed stranger than fiction. Utterly amazing the gossip monger Dominique Dunne and his very close friend, disgraced cop Mark Furhman, had such impact upon an innocent man. Kennedy solves the case in this compelling account. One can only hope some justice will be served in the future, that the guilty will be prosecuted and Skakel exonerated.”

You’re doing the same think RFK Jr. does in his book: he paints Michael Skakel as a saint, and everyone else connected with the case is either corrupt, incompetent, or a liar.

This is from a man, RFK Jr., who was found unconscious in an airplane bathroom and subsequently arrested for possession of heroin. As a result, he was fired from his job at the NY City District Attorney’s office, and disbarred for two years. And yet you give him kudos for being credible and say I created a “fiction,” when in fact what I have written in my book is the absolute, unbiased truth, taken from court reports, newspaper accounts, and all available documents pertaining to the case, including the Sutton Report, which was commissioned by Rushton Skakel to find his sons innocent of the murder of Martha Moxley, but produced the exact opposite result.

In addition, you call Mark Fuhrman a “disgraced cop,” but you don’t call RFK Jr. a “disgraced lawyer,” when he shamed his family and the NY City District Attorney’s office with his past criminal behavior.

And why would you believe a man, RFK Jr., who is an admitted serial adulterer, who some people claim was responsible for the suicide death of his second wife, Mary, which happened while he was romancing his third wife?

If a man would lie to his wife, the person who is supposed to be closer and dearer to him that anyone else on earth, how can we trust anything he says?

https://www.amazon.com/Mysterious-Murder-Martha-Moxley-Political-ebook/dp/B01GONEAUW/ref=asap_bc?ie=UTF8#nav-subnav

Leonard Levitt op-ed: Journalist deconstructs Kennedy’s claim Skakel was ‘Framed’

Posted in crime, criminal, criminals, famous murders, famous trials, killers, murder, Murder in Greenwich Connecticut, Uncategorized, unsolved murders, world news with tags , , , , , , , , , , on August 22, 2016 by Joe Bruno's Blogs

By Leonard Levitt

In his recently published book, Robert F. Kennedy Jr. maintains that his cousin, Michael Skakel, was “framed” for the murder of his 15-year-old neighbor, Martha Moxley, by an incompetent lawyer, a “corrupt” detective and prosecutor, and the media — including this reporter.
Martha was beaten to death in the Belle Haven section of Greenwich on Oct. 30, 1975, with a golf club that came from a set found the next day in the Skakel home. The case has become a 41-year legal odyssey, with no resolution in sight.

But Michael Skakel wasn’t framed, as the title of Kennedy’s book alleges. Instead, perpetuating the basest of racial stereotypes, Kennedy has framed two men, one black, the other of mixed race.

“Kennedy also shows how he tracked down the likely killers, whose presence was detected neither by the police nor the press,” reads his book jacket. Kennedy himself writes: “Using the evidence I have cited in this book, prosecutors have sufficient cause to indict Burton Tinsley and Adolph Hasbrouck for Martha Moxley’s murder.”

Kennedy offers no proof for his claims. The closest he comes is to write that Hasbrouck and Tinsley admitted to him they had been in Belle Haven on the night Martha was murdered.

On BizTalk radio he told host Jim Campbell: “Both of the men, Adolph and Burr, acknowledged on tape that they were there that night.”
On the Phoenix-based radio show “House of Mystery” to publicize his book, he told host Al Warren: “I was able to track those two men down and have conversations with them in which they admitted that they had been in Greenwich that night, and they admitted that they had been in the home of Geoffrey Byrne, the boy who helped them clean off after the murder.”

Those statements are lies.

According to court documents, Kennedy secretly recorded Hasbrouck and Tinsley in separate telephone conversations in 2003, the year after Michael’s conviction. But no such admissions appeared on either recording, transcripts of which were made available to me.

At a 2007 hearing seeking a new trial, based on Kennedy’s claims, Michael’s lawyers never offered any admissions as new evidence, a further indication there were none.

Byrne, who Kennedy claims helped Hasbrouck and Tinsley “clean off after the murder,” died a few years after the murder.
Kennedy’s source for his allegations is Gitano (Tony) Bryant, who Kennedy describes in his book as a first cousin to basketball star Kobe Bryant. Last year, Gitano Bryant pleaded guilty in Virginia to under-reporting millions of dollars in his tobacco importing company, resulting in a $6 million tax liability. In 1993 he was convicted of participating in an armed robbery/home invasion in California in which he claimed to have been kidnapped. He was later fired by a Texas law firm after his employers discovered Bryant never passed the bar, as he had claimed.

In 2007, Connecticut Judge Edward Karazin denied Michael’s motion for a new trial, concluding that Bryant’s claims “lacked credibility” and are “absent any genuine corroboration.”

In 2013, as Michael again sought a new trial, claiming his lawyer, Mickey Sherman, had been incompetent, Judge Thomas Bishop found Bryant’s “trail of deceit would likely erode any confidence in Bryant’s credibility.”

However, Bishop ruled Sherman failed his client and granted Michael a new trial. Prosecutors have appealed his decision to Connecticut’s highest court, which is expected to rule in the next few months. Meanwhile, Michael has been released from prison, where he served 11 years.
Bryant came to Kennedy’s notice after Kennedy wrote an article in 2003 in Atlantic Monthly, maintaining Kenneth Littleton, a tutor who moved into the Skakel house the night of the murder, was a more likely suspect than Michael.

Bryant told Kennedy that he, Hasbrouck and Tinsley, who were schoolmates in the Bronx, New York, had been in Belle Haven the night of the murder and that up to 15 people had seen them. At the 2007 hearing, Kennedy testified he was unable to find anyone to corroborate this.
Bryant also told Kennedy that Hasbrouck, who is black and who Bryant described as 6-foot-3 and 200 pounds at the time of the murder, met Martha at a dance in Greenwich a few months before, although no one but Bryant ever reported seeing them together.

Quoting Bryant, Kennedy writes that Hasbrouck “was obsessed with her beautiful blond hair,” and wanted to go “caveman” on her.
“Adolph and Burr, inebriated and ‘out of control’ began making sexually charged comments to some of the girls,” Kennedy writes about their supposedly being in Belle Haven the night of the murder.

“‘Where are the bitches?’ they were now demanding. ‘We’ve just got to get into something.’”

According to Bryant, a day or two later, the two confessed to him they killed Martha. Kennedy writes, “Adolph boasted, ‘Well, I got mine. We got her caveman style.’”

Bryant, however, refused to repeat his story to Connecticut authorities or to testify under oath at the 2007 hearing. Kennedy justifies his refusal, writing, “Michael’s conviction reinforced Tony’s mistrust of the system and validated his reason for not coming forward.”

Kennedy also wrote that “it became clear to me they (Hasbrouck and Tinsley) had been there that night.” As evidence he mentioned that Byrnes’ relatives “were dead certain that no black person could have visited their house. … I subsequently talked with both Tindel (sic) and Burr, who admitted having been to their house. Both of them (had been there) on at least six occasions and then described the interior of the house and other intricate details.”
“Wouldn’t it have been a little more helpful to determine if they were in Belle Haven on the night of Oct. 30, 1975, if you had ever spoken to somebody who had actually said they’d seen them there?” retorted prosecutor Jonathan Benedict.

Another person who claimed Hasbrouck had been in Belle Haven the night of the murder was Skakel’s private investigator, Vito Colucci. At the 2007 hearing, Colucci testified Hasbrouck admitted this in an interview he conducted with his assistant, Kris Steele, at Hasbrouck’s home in Bridgeport in 2003.

Colucci testified he brought Steele to take notes and “mainly to have a witness.” He testified: “Anytime I do something of any magnitude I try to get it on video or make sure I have somebody with me.”

Colucci acknowledged he did not record his interview with Hasbrouck and that Steele’s report, which was part of the court record, made no mention of any admission.

After he telephoned Hope Seeley, one of Skakel’s lawyers, Colucci testified, Steele wrote a second report that included Hasbrouck’s alleged admission. “Kris left out a few things and I just told him what to do.” Seeley, who is now a judge, declined comment through a Connecticut Judicial Branch spokesperson. Colucci did not respond to an email and telephone call.

According to Hasbrouck’s lawyer, Lawrence Schoenbach, “Hasbrouck’s mother had forbidden him to stay out during a school night, much less go to Greenwich. His mom worked in the 40th precinct in the Bronx. She cracked the whip.” Bryant, who attended the same Greenwich private school as Michael before moving to the Bronx, brought Hasbrouck and Tinsley to Greenwich a few times, said Schoenbach, “but always on weekends.”

Hasbrouck, says Schoenbach, graduated from college, served three years in the army and received an honorable discharge. “He has been married for 25 years. He has a daughter in college. He has been a production assistant at ABC for 15 years. He was a decent kid who became a respectable adult. Imagine 30 years later somebody knocks on your door and says, ‘Did you kill Martha Moxley?’ ”

Of Kennedy’s book, Schoenbach says: “His story was rejected by the courts 10 years ago and is now repackaged. Simply because he puts it in a book and gives it a better veneer makes it no more credible.”

In an interview on NBC’s “Dateline,” Kennedy dared Hasbrouck to sue him for libel. Schoenbach said he would wait until Connecticut’s highest court rules before making a decision.

It would be disingenuous not to mention that Kennedy’s book reflects his animosity toward me as a reporter. In part, I suspect this is because of two articles I wrote. The first, published in The (Stamford) Advocate and Greenwich Time in 1991, led the state of Connecticut to reopen its investigation.
The second was a series of articles, published in Newsday in 1995, that described how Michael and his brother, Tommy, lied to the police about their whereabouts the night of the murder. That led investigators to refocus on the Skakels and away from Littleton, then their primary suspect.

I’ve often wondered why Kennedy has committed himself to Michael’s innocence. I suspect he identifies with Michael’s tragic childhood and early adulthood. Like Kennedy, Michael lost a parent as a child. Like Michael, Kennedy became an alcoholic. He was also a heroin addict. Manhattan District Attorney Robert Morgenthau fired him and he was disbarred as a lawyer for two years.

But where is it written that a person of privilege and entitlement with a famous name can write lies about innocent people without consequence?

Leonard Levitt was hired by Greenwich Time and The Advocate in the early 1980s to investigate the 1975 murder of Martha Moxley. An article in 1991 helped relaunch the police investigation and led to the 2000 arrest of Michael Skakel. Levitt wrote the book “Conviction” about the Skakel case. A Stamford resident, Levitt runs the website “NYPD Confidential.”

“The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley: Did the Political and Financial Power of the Kennedy/Skakel Families Trump the Truth?”

Posted in crime, criminal, criminals, famous murders, famous trials, killers, murder, Murder in Greenwich Connecticut, police, reality TV, Uncategorized, unsolved murders with tags , , , , , on August 21, 2016 by Joe Bruno's Blogs

International Best Selling author Joe Bruno’s “The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley: Did the Political and Financial Power of the Kennedy/Skakel Families Trump the Truth?” is ranked #1 on Amazon-Canada in the category “Hot New Releases – Law Enforcement” and #3 in the category “Law Enforcement.”

https://www.amazon.ca/Mysterious-Murder-Martha-Moxley-Political-ebook/dp/B01GONEAUW/ref=zg_bs_tab_pd_bsnr_1

The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley by Joe Bruno

Posted in crime, criminal, criminals, famous trials, killers, Lawyers, murder, Murder in Greenwich Connecticut, police, Uncategorized, unsolved murders with tags , , , , , , , , , on August 20, 2016 by Joe Bruno's Blogs

Robert Kennedy Jr.’s new book “Framed,” says exactly the opposite of what I say in my new book “The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley: Did the Political and Financial Power of the Kennedy/Skakel Families Trump the Truth?”

I maintain that his cousin, Michael Skakel, is guilty as sin of killing 15-year-old Martha Moxley in 1975. In fact, it’s a disgrace it took that long to convict him (he was found guilty of Martha’s murder in 2002).

RFK Jr. says about a dozen people, including his two family lawyers, conspired to frame his cousin, 27 years after the murder. He names several possible killers, but then, without a scintilla of proof, he settles on two African-Americans as the killers.

So much for RFK Jr. being politically correct.

Kennedy spent who-knows-how-much money to hire eight people to help him write his book (he mentions all eight in his acknowledgements at at the beginning of his books).

I, except for a proofreader, went solo.

RFK Jr. has been on numerous national TV programs, including “Dateline,” to promote his book. Plus, he’s been in scores of daily newspapers, also promoting his book.

I have done neither.

Unlike RFK Jr., I don’t have the connections; I don’t have the cash.

Still, our sales numbers are remarkable similar. My book is ranked anywhere from 12,000 to 10,000 in the the Amazon Kindle ratings (out of 5 million books). RFK’s book is ranked from 9,000 to 8,000 in the same rankings.

His book sells for $15.33 on Amazon Kindle; mine sells for a mere $4.99. Plus I throw in a free book tacked on to the end of the first book – “JULIUS AND ETHEL ROSENBERG – SPIES OR SCAPEGOATS?”

Plus, my book is FREE with Kindle Unlimited!

Considering all of the above, I don’t think I will ever be on RFK’s Christmas card list. 🙂

The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley: Did the Political and Financial Power of the Kennedy/Skakel Families Trump the Truth?

Posted in biography, Book Reviews, crime, criminal, criminals, killers, murder, Murder in Greenwich Connecticut, Uncategorized, unsolved murders with tags , , , , , , , on July 29, 2016 by Joe Bruno's Blogs

If you want to read the true story of the murder of Martha Moxley, read “The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley: Did the Political and Financial Power of the Kennedy/Skakel Families Trump the Truth?” by yours truly.

It’s presently on pre-order and will be released exclusively on Amazon on August 6th.

It’s presently ranked #1 on Amazon in the category “Hot New Releases – True Crime – Law Enforcement.”

Product information:

And as a BONUS, you’ll get absolutely FREE: “JULIUS AND ETHEL ROSENBERG – SPIES OR SCAPEGOATS? YOU MAKE THE CALL!”

Making it 2 books for the price of 1!”

Ranked #1 in “Hot New Releases” in both the categories “Law Enforcement” and “Hoaxes & Deceptions”

At around 9:30 pm on October 30, 1975, the blond and beautiful 15-year-old Martha Moxley had just left the Skakel residence and was walking to her home on the other side of Walsh Lane, in the swank Belle Haven section of Greenwich, Connecticut.

Suddenly, someone rushed up behind her and bashed her head in with a six-iron that belonged to a set of clubs later found in the Skakel home. The coroner said that Martha’s head had absorbed as many as 15 blows, any one of which could have been fatal. The killer then dragged Martha’s body down a deep slope and deposited her, face-down, under a large, silvery-blue pine tree. The killer then stabbed her in the neck with a splintered shaft of the golf club, and then pulled her jeans down to her knees, exposing her buttocks. The killer had either been unwilling, or was physically unable to sexually assault the half-naked girl.

The Greenwich police had not investigated a murder case in over thirty years, and they totally bungled the crucial initial investigation and the subsequent follow-up investigations. It wasn’t until 2002, twenty-seven years after Martha was murdered, that Michael Skakel, the nephew of Ethel Skakel Kennedy, the wife of former Attorney General, Robert F. Kennedy, was tried and convicted for the murder of Martha Moxley.

Was the Greenwich Police Department just totally incompetent in their initial and their ongoing investigation of Martha’s murder?

Did the state’s Attorney General look the other way because he was afraid of whose toes he might step on?

Did the Skakel/Kennedy connection intimidate both the Greenwich Police Department and the state’s Attorney General from doing a prompt and thorough investigation of Martha’s brutal murder?

“The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley: Did the Political and Financial Power of the Kennedy/Skakel Families Trump the Truth?” will try to answer those questions for you.

To pre-order, SCROLL to the top of this page and hit the “Pre-Order” button.

*****

Author’s note: I started this project with no preconceived notions. With 40 years of journalistic experience in my back pocket and more than 45 published books in the bank, I did all my research for this book by reading more than a dozen books on the subject of either the Moxley murder, or the Kennedy family’s connection to the Skakels; in particular those concerning Ethel Skakel Kennedy, who married the former United States Attorney General, Robert F. Kennedy. I also pored over 200 magazine and newspaper articles available on the internet; especially the Samford Advocate and Greenwich Times, and the New York Times.

This book is my absolute honest opinion of what transpired in the Martha Moxley murder case.

Of course, opinions are like noses; everybody has one. But I back mine up with facts, not other people’s opinions. I have no horses in this race, and I have no axes to grind.

And I don’t, to shine a favorable light on a blood relative, pull new suspects out of my butt, with absolutely no solid proof that those suspects were even in Greenwich, Connecticut on the night of the murder, forty-one years ago.

Of course, I feel great compassion for the Moxley family. They, along with their daughter, Martha, are the real victims here. No matter what anyone with a vested interest in this case may say.

R.I.P. Martha Moxley (1960-1975)

https://www.amazon.com/Mysterious-Murder-Martha-Moxley-Political-ebook/dp/B01GONEAUW/ref=zg_bs_tab_pd_bsnr_2#navbar

This is the Forward in Joe Bruno’s soon-to-be-released book, “The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley: Did the Political and Financial Power of the Kennedy/Skakel Families.”

Posted in crime, criminal, crooked cops, killers, Lawyers, murder, Murder in Greenwich Connecticut, police, Uncategorized, unsolved murders with tags , , , , , , , on June 29, 2016 by Joe Bruno's Blogs

This is the Forward in Joe Bruno’s soon-to-be-released book, “The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley: Did the Political and Financial Power of the Kennedy/Skakel Families.”

*****

Foreword

It all started for me around the year 2000 at a “yard sale” in Sarasota, Fl.

Living amongst the tenements on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in New York City for 48 years, a yard sale was an oddity to me. But my wife figured she could pick up a valuable item or two for almost nothing, so we stopped at a yard sale which took place in someone’s driveway.

As my wife picked through the clothes, figurines, and appliance that were lined up on two long picnic tables, I fingered through a box of paperback books that was laying on the concrete floor. The one that caught my eye was a book featuring a pretty blond girl on the cover. Next to her face in red lettering was written, “WHO KILLED MARTHA MOXLEY?

The title of the book was Murder in Greenwich, and was written by Mark Fuhrman. I knew Fuhrman’s name from the infamous O.J. Simpson trial, but I didn’t know he had become an author. (Unbeknownst to me, Fuhrman had also written a previous book on the Simpson trial called Murder in Brentwood.)

I paid 50 cents for the book, took it home, and put it on a huge shelf of books that I planned to read before I perished.
Fast forward to November 2014 – 14 years later.

I don’t know why, but I picked up Murder in Greenwich and started reading it. At this point in time, I didn’t know that anyone in the Kennedy family was involved, and I thought a Skakel was a form of foreign currency. When I finished Murder in Greenwich the takeaway was that Fuhrman predicted that Michael Skakel, then 15 years old was the killer of 15-year-old Martha Moxley in Greenwich, Connecticut on October 30, 1975.

Soon after Murder in Greenwich was published, Skakel was indicted for Martha’s murder. Then in 2002, Skakel was convicted by a jury of his peers, and he was sentenced to 20 years-life in prison. In 2013, the guilty verdict was overturned by a judge who said that Michael Skakel’s attorney, Mickey Sherman, had not given him a proper defense.

Before I sat down and started my research for The Mysterious Murder of Martha Moxley: Did the Political and Financial Power of the Kennedy/Skakel Families, I knew nothing about the case except what I had read in Fuhrman’s book, in which the time period had ended in 1998.

On January 2, 2015, I began my research in earnest and continued it for one full year. On January 2, 2016, while still immersed in my research, I started writing this book in earnest.

I went into this project with no preconceived notions. With 40 years as a journalist in my back pocket, all my research for this book has been done by reading more than 10 books on the subject of either the Moxley murder, or the Kennedy family’s connection to the Skakels; in particular those concerning Ethel Skakel Kennedy, who married the former United States Attorney General, Robert F. Kennedy. I also pored over 200 magazine and newspaper articles available on the internet; especial the Samford Advocate and Greenwich Times, and the New York Times.

And like Nero Wolfe, I never left the comfort of my home.

I have not spoken to anyone connected with this case: none of the Moxleys, Skakels or Kennedys, and none of the detectives or law enforcement agencies involved. The only contact I had with anyone involved in the Moxley murder case was via email with Len Levitt, who wrote: Conviction: Solving the Moxley Murder in 2006. I asked Levitt a few questions, but he was not effusive in his answers.

In street terms, he gave me the cold shoulder.

Still, all the quotes I needed, and all the facts that are pertinent to this case were already available in print in one form or another. But it takes someone with years of experience to piece together all the facts into a coherent and plausible narrative. Without tooting my horn too loud, I have that experience.

After researching the Moxley Murder Case, and while writing the first draft, I changed my opinion on certain things several times. In fact, after I finished the first draft, I threw it out (deleted it in computer terms), and started again from scratch from a different perspective.
This book is my absolute honest opinion of what transpired in the “Martha Moxley Murder Case,” much like the conclusion Mark Fuhrman arrived at when he gave his final judgement in Murder in Greenwich.

Opinions are like noses; everyone has one. But I back mine up with facts, not other people’s opinions.

And more importantly, unlike other books which have recently been written by people connected to the case in one way or another, I have no horse in this race.

Of course, I feel compassion for the Moxley family. They, along with their daughter, Martha, are the real victims here. No matter what anyone with a vested interest in this case may say.

Martha Moxley (1960 – 1975) – may she rest in peace.

https://www.amazon.com/Mysterious-Murder-Martha-Moxley-Political-ebook/dp/B01GONEAUW?ie=UTF8&ref_=asap_bc